On December 19, 2022, on the fifteenth Convention of the Events (COP15) to the Conference on Organic Variety, over 190 international locations agreed on a historic framework for the conservation of world biodiversity. The brand new framework units formidable targets for addressing present challenges in managing and conserving biodiversity – terrestrial and marine – however to attain this we have to basically change how marine info is supplied.
The United Nations Convention on Organic Variety (COP15) has concluded with what it calls a “historic settlement to halt biodiversity loss”. A dedication to guard at the very least 30% of terrestrial, inland water, coastal and marine ecosystems by 2030 was one of many key achievements of this landmark settlement between nations referred to as the Put up-2020 World Biodiversity Framework.
Whereas usually ignored in worldwide discussions of biodiversity, the ocean is teeming with life and hosts a lot of the world’s biodiversity, though the precise variety of species remains to be hotly debated. The ocean additionally helps the livelihoods of over three billion folks around the globe. For a lot of nations whose financial and human well-being is supported by ocean ecosystems, similar to island and coastal nations, this is a vital a part of their biodiversity equation. It additionally supplies further advantages – similar to oxygen manufacturing and local weather regulation – to society and the planet as a complete.
The COP15 biodiversity convention in Montreal supplied an vital alternative for the World Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Fee (IOC/UNESCO) to boost consciousness of the significance of marine biodiversity and the necessity to monitor it extra successfully are designed to handle and put money into marine ecosystems for future generations. Selling the sustainability of the oceans is a key concern of the United Nations Decade of Ocean Sciences for Sustainable Improvement (2021-2030; the Decade of the Oceans), now getting into its third 12 months – and can proceed with out environment friendly and sustainable biodiversity observing techniques of the seas be not possible.
GOOS participated within the flagship ocean occasion “An Ocean of Life” organized by IOC/UNESCO on December sixteenth. The massively profitable occasion, opened by UNESCO Director-Normal Audrey Azoulay, centered on information and options for marine and coastal biodiversity throughout the Put up-2020 World Biodiversity Framework, gathering international consultants and high-level policymakers into one Dialogue with the COP15 delegate. This included the discharge of the model new publication Ocean Decade, Ocean Science for Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Use, on how the Ocean Decade helps the Conference on Organic Variety and its post-2020 international biodiversity framework.
Ocean commentary and important ocean variables
The primary goal of GOOS throughout COP15 was to focus on what has already been achieved by GOOS consultants – the framework of Important Ocean Variables (EOVs), together with 12 key variables to watch biodiversity, from microbes and phytoplankton to mangroves and marine mammals. (see new GOOS flyer).
Panelists on the first session on the IOC/UNESCO and Ocean Decade COP15 occasion “An Ocean of Life”. The complete program will be discovered right here.
On the occasion, the co-chair of GOOS, Dr. Anya Waite, the important thing function of GOOS in supporting sustainable administration of ocean biodiversity by way of systematic and steady monitoring of the 12 biodiversity EOVs – vital observations wanted to advance our understanding of the state of the oceans and the methods how biodiversity helps livelihoods and what future trajectories for ocean biodiversity would possibly appear like. “That is precisely the ocean biodiversity observatory that you should report for the post-2020 targets of the World Biodiversity Framework,” stated Dr. wait.
GOOS and its companions, such because the Ocean Biodiversity Data System (OBIS) and the Marine Biodiversity Statement Community (MBON), work with communities around the globe to strengthen the gathering of those key observations and combine them into a world system.
The Important Ocean Variables can be utilized to report on key biodiversity indicators that help the World Biodiversity Framework. Designed to function at a number of scales, they supply a mechanism for nations to return collectively to collaborate in creating a fit-for-purpose ocean biodiversity observing system to satisfy nations’ reporting necessities. “The World Ocean Observing System, along with its companions, needs to work intently collectively and help nations in reporting on biodiversity indicators,” stated Dr. wait.
dr Anya Waite presenting at “An Ocean of Life” at COP15.
Technological advances to help marine biodiversity monitoring
Throughout the aspect occasion, quite a few consultants talked about the necessity for ocean observations to underpin sustainable administration and the ability of latest applied sciences to show the tide in our understanding and monitoring of ocean biodiversity. dr Noting the approaching revolution in ocean biodiversity knowledge, Waite highlighted how new applied sciences similar to environmental DNA (or eDNA), digital imaging and distant sensing can vastly enhance the sheer quantity of ocean info accessible and our understanding of marine ecosystems.
An instance of purposes of latest applied sciences in marine commentary is UNESCO’s Pacific Islands Marine Bioinvasion Alert Community (PacMAN) within the South Pacific, which is constructing an early warning system for invasive marine species based mostly on species identification utilizing eDNA.
“That is notably related to the brand new World Biodiversity Framework as one among its key goals is to scale back introduction and institution charges of invasive alien species by at the very least 50% by 2030, and specifically to eradicate or management current invasive alien species at precedence websites similar to islands,” stated Ward Appeltans, specialist within the Marine Biodiversity Program and coordinator of the PacMAN undertaking on the IOC/UNESCO.
Delegates from the UK, Mexico, France and Norway spoke concerning the essential function of the ocean in assembly the COP15 targets, in addition to for the economies and sustainability of their international locations, and highlighted nationwide and transboundary initiatives to construct a greater future for human-ocean interplay out about local weather and biodiversity.
Local weather and biodiversity: two sides of the identical coin
One other key theme of COP15 was the interconnectivity between local weather and biodiversity, which was additionally highlighted throughout the IOC/UNESCO occasion “An Ocean of Life”. As human actions proceed to change the ocean’s means to mitigate local weather change, the No Paris With out Montreal Declaration underscores the necessity to mix biodiversity and local weather motion in help of the 2015 Paris Settlement.
The declaration, initiated by the Ocean and Local weather Platform – a global coalition of 85 marine establishments from science and civil society – underlines the necessity to have a look at the ocean holistically and thru transdisciplinary approaches. An built-in international ocean observing system that gives well timed, related, important ocean knowledge on local weather, biodiversity, climate and marine hazards might be essential.
Capability and funding for the long run
One other main dialogue level throughout COP15 was the inequality of capacities and capabilities between nations. With the intention to keep the well being of world biodiversity and guarantee lasting advantages for all, present inequalities have to be redressed. For marine biodiversity administration, which means that ocean states with developed capacities should play a job in supporting info and know-how switch and capability constructing to make sure that all nations can successfully handle and preserve their marine ecosystems.
The necessity to construct capability and promote equitable entry to info and know-how was acknowledged at COP15, with various international locations pledged help and philanthropic and international sustainability funds a transparent curiosity in increasing funding to help the implementation of the brand new World Biodiversity Framework confirmed. GOOS and the IOC/UNESCO introduced the Ocean Decade and pressured the necessity to guarantee funding not solely in inexperienced but additionally in blue biodiversity.
Robust help for ocean biodiversity was recognized at COP15, opening doorways to new funding alternatives, partnerships and vital technological advances within the close to future. However the problem stays to maintain ocean life in focus as a part of the implementation of the brand new biodiversity framework – and GOOS will proceed to work to maintain this dialogue alive in 2023 and past.
The simplest option to hold the required give attention to marine biodiversity is with a robust marine commentary infrastructure and knowledge administration system that helps excellence in marine administration and conservation. Deploying this method successfully and globally might be essential for nations reporting on indicators and monitoring progress in direction of the brand new international biodiversity targets.