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Special Thanks to:
Save Our Seas Foundation, https://saveourseas.com
Dr Barbara E.Wueringer, Sharks and Rays Australia
In Australia please report your sawfish sightings towww.cytags.com
Dr George Lauder, Harvard University, https://twitter.com/georgelauder
Jonathan R. Green, https://www.galapagoswhaleshark.org
Dr David Gruber, https://www.instagram.com/davidfgruber
Dr Andrew Chin, James Cook University
Dr Dean Grubbs, Florida State University
Dr Brooke Flammang, New Jersey Institute of Technology
Marco Carè : TGI Maldives-TGI Halaveli
Anna & Ned DeLoach, https://www.blennywatcher.com/
ZooWild YouTube, https://www.youtube.com/@Zoo_Wild
Florida Scuba Divers, https://www.youtube.com/@FloridaScubaDivers
Julie Higgs, https://www.youtube.com/@JulieHiggs_Spearfishing
Fat Fish Movies, https://www.youtube.com/@FatFishMovies
Airflow across a wing: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UqBmdZ-BNig
Amir Akbarzadeh & Borazjani Iman
– Controlling flow separation using traveling wave actuation.
Ouro, Pablo & Stoesser, Thorsten & Ramirez, Luis. (2018). Effect of Blade Cambering on
Dynamic Stall in View of Designing Vertical Axis Turbines. Journal of Fluids Engineering.
140. 061104. 10.1115/1.4039235.
Domel AG, et al. Shark skin-inspired designs that improve aerodynamic performance. J R Soc Interface. 2018 Feb;15(139):20170828. doi: 10.1098/rsif.2017.0828.
Duchatelet, Laurent & Marion, Raphaël & Mallefet, Jérôme. (2021). A Third Luminous Shark Family: Confirmation of Luminescence Ability for Zameus squamulosus (Squaliformes; Somniosidae). Photochemistry and photobiology. 97. 10.1111/php.13393.
Du Clos KT et al. Passive bristling of mako shark scales in reversing flows. J R Soc Interface. 2018 Oct 24;15(147):20180473. doi: 10.1098/rsif.2018.0473.
Gruber, D., Loew, E., Deheyn, D.et al.Biofluorescence in Catsharks : Fundamental Description and Relevance for Elasmobranch Visual Ecology.Sci Rep6, 24751 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/srep24751
Josberger EE et al. Proton conductivity in ampullae of Lorenzini jelly. Sci Adv. 2016 May 13;2(5):e1600112. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1600112.
Kempster RM, Hart NS, Collin SP. Survival of the stillest: predator avoidance in shark embryos. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e52551. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052551.
Mallefet, Jérôme et al. (2021). Bioluminescence of the Largest Luminous Vertebrate, the Kitefin Shark, Dalatias licha. Frontiers in Marine Science. 8. 10.3389/fmars.2021.633582.
Park HB et al. Bright Green Biofluorescence in Sharks Derives from Bromo-Kynurenine Metabolism. iScience. 2019 Sep 27;19:1291-1336. doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2019.07.019.
Payne, N., Iosilevskii, G., Barnett, A.et al.Great hammerhead sharks swim on their side to reduce transport costs.Nat Commun7, 12289 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms12289
Rohner CA, et al. Laser photogrammetry improves size and demographic estimates for whale sharks. PeerJ. 2015 Apr 7;3:e886. doi: 10.7717/peerj.886.
Sato,Keiichi, et al; How great white sharks nourish their embryos to a large size: evidence of lipid histotrophy in lamnoid shark reproduction.Biol Open15 September 2016; 5 (9): 1211–1215. doi:https://doi.org/10.1242/bio.017939
Sims DW, et al. Circles in the sea: annual courtship “torus” behaviour of basking sharks Cetorhinus maximus identified in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean. J Fish Biol. 2022 Nov;101(5):1160-1181. doi: 10.1111/jfb.15187.
Tomita, Taketeru et al. (2018). Locomotion is not a privilege after birth: Ultrasound images of viviparous shark embryos swimming from one uterus to the other. Ethology. 125. 10.1111/eth.12828.
Tomita T, Murakumo K, Komoto S, Dove A, Kino M, Miyamoto K, Toda M. Armored eyes of the whale shark. PLoS One. 2020 Jun 29;15(6):e0235342. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0235342.
Weigmann S, Kaschner CJ, Thiel R. A new microendemic species of the deep-water catshark genus Bythaelurus (Carcharhiniformes, Pentanchidae) from the northwestern Indian Ocean, with investigations of its feeding ecology, generic review and identification key. PLoS One. 2018 Dec 12;13(12):e0207887. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0207887.
Williams LH et al. Sharks as exfoliators: widespread chafing between marine organisms suggests an unexplored ecological role. Ecology. 2022 Jan;103(1):e03570. doi: 10.1002/ecy.3570.
Wueringer, Barbara E.et al. The function of the sawfish’s saw, Current Biology, Volume 22, Issue 5, 2012, Pages R150-R151, ISSN 0960-9822, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2012.01.055.
This episode is sponsored by brilliant learn to think this right here is a little baby shark it's cute isn't it rubbing up on that veiny sack this one was laid as an egg and then abandoned left a fan for itself well not entirely the mother did leave it attached to that ball it is a yolk sack and contains enough food to get the.
Baby through to hatching provides a bit of comfort too by the looks of it it's like a stuffy and mushy peas all wrapped up in the testicle now shark eggs come in all sorts of different shapes and sizes with different ways of attaching to crap on the sea floor this sex toy here is actually the egg of a crested horn shark and it's thought to blend in.
With the kelp that it's often found in but listen being an abandoned egg can suck literally this is a Port Jackson shark sucking out the insides of one of those eggs it's using that bottom of the ice cream cone technique too knows what it's doing in many species of shark though the eggs hatch inside the mother where the embryos then develop the.
Embryos start off with yolk sacks just like the ones you see in eggs but often pregnancy lasts longer than that food supply does but baby's gotta eat and the mother has to figure out how to give it more food sometimes it's a nutritious mucus in the case of the great white shark the mother creates unfertilized eggs which the embryos can gobble up.
With their tiny little teeth and it's not all just sitting around and waiting in there some babies can be quite active here you can see a Tony nurse shark embryos swimming freely between its mother's two uteruses it's cute right inside there are often embryos from different fathers and one thing this baby is doing is looking around for half.
Brothers and half-sisters to snack on not even born yet they're in a Game of Thrones situation now apparently these babies peek out of their mother's cloega as they're swimming back and forth between her two uteruses you just saw it didn't you I know you did right there that's the Gerber baby that's where they come from Once born sharks are endowed.
With a number of amazing adaptations many sharks can swim very quickly Jerry what's this footage well I'm saying swim quickly and this one's walking what is it epilept shark when whatever it's called it's going to ruin the reputation of the rest of the Sharks try putting that in a scary movie Jerry look out shark everyone walk at a moderate Pace.
In the opposite direction be a disaster all right let's try this again many sharks can swim quite quickly this comes in handy because sharks live in places where there are sharks and also because the pancakes they eat don't exactly lie still on a plate run away pancake now it's not all that easy to move quickly through water if you've ever done water.
Aerobics then you've probably felt like an idiot but you've also probably found that water pushes back on you when you move like most fish sharks move their powerful Tails back and forth to move forward but as they move forward they also have to stay up most fishes use swim bladders to stay buoyant imagine you swallowed a condom you'd blown up.
With ape Jerry why is it a condom Jerry it's just a balloon now it doesn't make it more relatable sounds filthy anyway sharks don't have swim bladders but they have some tricks to lighten up they have a very fatty liver which helps and a skeleton made out of cartilage instead of bone every time you look at a shark your ear Whispers to your nose that.
Could have been us but even with all that sharks have a tendency towards the sinking Zone to stay afloat many sharks take advantage of lift certain shapes at certain angles cause fluids to move more quickly over one surface than the other you may have heard that the water on top moves faster because it has to reach the end at the same time as the water on the.
Bottom science hippies at Cambridge showed that that's just not true the water on top moves quite a bit farther in the same amount of time anyway the end result is that there's a difference in pressure between the top and the bottom resulting in a force that pushes in the direction of the lower pressure the fins of many sharks are just the.
Right shape to take advantage of lift the Hammerhead takes advantage of all of it here you can see how to put one back together if you you break it they will often swim at an angle getting lift from their side fins as well as the one on the top now you've probably noticed that water can get a bit Mushy Mushy when it passes quickly over a fin this is called.
Moshi Moji or turbulence if you've ever been in a water park wave pool then you've felt what it's like to be covered in urine but you've also felt how swirling water can complicate movement if the water gets too swirly swirling it can be hard to push against it and it can counteract lift so sharks have evolved some special tricks to reduce.
Turbulence this one's a shady one isn't it look at that side eye brilliant.org is a great way to learn you know how some sharks have to keep swimming to stay alive well it's like that with learning well I don't mean you're gonna die if you don't but a lifetime of learning keeps you sharp and in step with how the world is changing brilliant.
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There are thousands of lessons with new ones added each month they teach you fundamental concepts about how the world works and they can open up new opportunities for how you approach your work to try everything brilliant has to offer free for a full 30 days visit brilliant.org zayfrank or click on the link in the description the first 200 of.
You will get 20 off brilliant's annual premium subscription brilliant has been a long time sponsor of this show and I'm a fan please check them out today where were we all right sharks have evolved some special adaptations to reduce turbulence their skin is covered with denticles not like denticles of the octopus but rather denticles which are.
Made from exactly the same thing that teeth are made out of Dentin and enamel science hippies dented these testicles I tested these identicals to see what effect they have on the flow of water around the shark the tips of the tentacles interact with the fast-moving water but between them water is sort of Trapped in an Eddy and Eddie doesn't.
Like that one bit the net result is that less of the surface of the shark is interacting with the faster flow this means less drag and more efficient swimming listen you try to swim in drag your boa gets all tangled and never mind the Petticoat now the short fin Mako is the fastest shark reaching speeds of 70 to 100 kilometers an hour they have.
Special denticles if water begins to curl backwards on their skin creating drag their tentacles pop up and trap that backward flowing water which loses the dragon lets them swim faster but having your body covered in teeth has some other benefits I mean it's like having a little coat of armor the whale shark for example has an interesting.
Challenge its eyes protrude from the sides of its head You Know You're Gonna Bump those into the corner of the coffee table so you know what they did they put some armor right on their eyeballs so they can take a scratch at two and if that's not enough they can also retract their eyeball into their head meaning you could lose a ping-pong ball in that.
Hole wanna see it from the inside ready yoink now other fish figured out that if you rub against the grain those denticles can be used as an exfoliator scratchy scratchy I mean it comes with some risks I suppose it's like using a lion's mane for a hand towel personally I prefer my conveniences be a bit farther from a set of teeth now in some.
Sharks denticles seem to play a very different sort of role these sharks have photophores cells that can create light in fact a shark the kite fin shark is the largest bioluminescent vertebrate oftentimes they have a lot of these use photophores down on their underpants so that when you look up at them they blend in with a light coming down from above.
You can hide from other sharks or something that you plan on eating the denticles that surround these photophores seem to act like little light diffusers creating a more even glow other sharks can glow but in a different way two species of cat shark have cells that fluoresce meaning that they don't generate light but rather.
They take in one wavelength of light and use it to emit a different wavelength of light in this case they take in blue and spit out green you can see that some of these denticles are transparent allowing the light to shine through even their eggs glow now this sort of glowing seems to be more about visual communication between the Sharks males and females.
Have different patterns and it's possible that other fish can't see this light that they emit so the cat shark can be camouflaged for an ambush but perfectly visible to a potential mate like cracking a glow stick at a rave to get someone's attention now up close sharks do rely on their Vision to communicate eaten to hunt but sometimes.
The water can get murky and some things that are delicious bury themselves under the sand to help with this sharks have another set of sensory organs right there all those little holes that look like a five o'clock shadow those are ampulay of lorenzini the second most fun to say organ right behind islets of langerhan the little pores lead to.
Canals which are filled with a conductive jelly looks a bit like Vaseline when you squeeze it out I mean I'd be doing that all day nerve fibers are in contact with the gelling and can sense small changes in electrical potential or voltage now living things have electrical fields around them which can change when charged ions move.
Suddenly between membranes like when you Flex a muscle for example even shark babies can sense changes in this electrical field watch this one an electrical field is about to be turned on there look at that becomes completely motionless Hammerheads have a whole bunch of these sensors up front on their face where Evolution stepped on them now.
The song fish is not a shark it's a ray which is closely related it has sensors all up and down that front bit it's Rostrum certainly comes in handy when your eyes are on the top and your mouse on the bottom it uses that Rostrum sort of like an old man with a metal detector you know out there alone sweeping it back and forth sometimes doesn't even.
Turn it on just doesn't want to say hi to people anyway if the Rostrum does detect something conveniently it doubles as a weapon and listen it uses it exactly like you would if you had one of those things and if they're not slicing at it they can use their Rostrum to press their.
Prey against the ocean floor until they can slurp it up now unlike sawfish sharks often don't have something to push up against when they catch their food I mean eating underwater can be challenging with your food floating around like that look at those two little fish they are on a risky first date if you've ever bobbed for apples.
Then you know what it's like to have a mouthful of other people's saliva you also know that in water it can be difficult to get things in your mouth without the use of hands but sharks have figured out a few ways to go about it one approach is called Ram feeding sort of a floating orifice or Fleshlight of the sea perhaps fellatio has yet.
Unrealized it's essentially just opening your mouth and swimming but that's different than what this whale shark is doing which is called suction feeding stop it it repeatedly opens its mouth and creates negative pressure sucking in water and the tiny things that it eats also bubbles they like the bubbles I imagine it's sort of like underwater pop.
Rocks or some sort of extreme whale shark diet no seriously it fills you up now don't start thinking that it's all soft up front like Grandma's gums even whale sharks have 6 000 tiny tiny teeth they just stopped using them many other sharks of course do use their Chompers it's a good set of utensils to have if your leftovers are larger than you are.
And listen if you spend a lot of time chasing something it's good to be able to hold on when you catch up one of the most most impressive though is the cookie cutter shark there it is with the old number two I mean the pencil not like all right doesn't look that bad does it here's what it looks like from the bottom mutant zombie penis Vibes.
Their bottom teeth are fused and their mouths appear to be able to create suction their bites look like someone used an ice cream scoop a lot of people say these sharks spin to create that shape but there's no evidence for that and it's probably anyway other sharks like those in the genus scotina got tired of the chase they bury.
Themselves naked face down sand in your naughty bits just saying but if a fish comes along it's I know what you're saying what happens when sharks get horny Segway well I'll tell you fourth width these are basking sharks and it's thought that these circling is part of their mating behavior you know check out.
The tail you might want to get with as with most fish they can't talk which actually probably makes it easier to flirt they use signals like the classic head Bob yeah I see you and if they're into it they might turn over and show you the rest of the package it's quite cute almost refined with other sharks it's more like trying to meet someone in.
A mosh pit at Coachella it's a mess that guy knows foreplay can be a bit rough many sharks have a kink around biting get yourself a mouthful of Finn I mean this right here looks downright romantic and you can't blame them for trying to get a bit of grippage you try having sex in the deep end with nothing to hold on to you tell me what went.
Where in the end the male must insert his double peanut Jerry it's not a double penis they're called claspers I know but just because it looks like one doesn't mean it is I mean if that were true we'd be in a pickle I mean right there pickles you want a jar of dicks Jerry anyway Spurs are modified fins he's got two because it all goes down.
From the side and with all these rolling around you don't know what side you're going to be on when inserted into the female's cloaca the ends of the claspers in some species open up like a little umbrella and a little siphon pumps water and sperm up in there and soon enough there'll be more little shark babies look at that Turtle back there I mean.
That's a dirty turtle what else what do you mean Jay Oh you mean if things that look like penises were actually penises well your fingers for one and the number one for that matter you'd have to count down from three to penis using your penis fingers Jerry and never mind drinking your soda pop through a straw I mean that'd be.
Some surprise wouldn't it just be glad things are the way they are if you look hard enough like really really hard dick pretty much everywhere.
Lyric on the tree
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